These patrons were twice as likely to order a meatless lunch compared with a control group 1 in 3 people versus 1 in 6. Changing a habit takes effort; when people do it, they signal the importance of change. Change also signals that more people will curb their meat eating in the future, and people conform to this anticipated norm as if it were a current reality. Finally, change signals that anyone can take climate action, and eating less meat is not just for vegetarians. As a rule of thumb, the more substantial the change you make, the more you signal the need for change.
Recycling matters, but it is common and easy. How many people does it take to start change? Just one. Psychologists study these situations using tasks that pit individual gains against collective good. In one task, anonymous players can contribute money to a collective fund, which gets doubled and redistributed, or they can keep their money and benefit from the contributions of their fellows.
Share more and the group benefits; keep more and you benefit. In general, people contribute more when they see others do it too—even if only one other person starts the trend at first. Climate change scholar Steve Westlake found this exact pattern in a recent survey: Among respondents who knew one person who gave up flying for the environment, half flew less themselves.
Flying less does reduce emissions. Crucially, though, social norms provide a backdrop for policy change. When people forge an initial commitment to a cause, like buying less meat, they often proceed to political commitments, like contacting a senator. Rather than undermining political action, sustainable living prompts sustainable voting.
A caveat: These benefits emerge when conservation requires some sacrifice. Easy, single-shot actions like buying efficient lightbulbs make us feel like we have done our part and can disengage. More challenging, ongoing actions like changing our diets propel us forward into action. Just as sacrifice convinces others that climate action is important, it convinces us of our own commitment; we start to see ourselves as climate advocates.
Eating less meat creates a gateway to workplace advocacy—like encouraging digital meetings or lobbying for solar panels—which opens a door to signing petitions or protesting. If people act on climate change in their daily lives, they will expect industry to do its part. They also pay attention to trends. Lyft recently announced it would offset carbon emissions from its rides.
Google, Apple, Sony, T-Mobile, and others have committed to buying renewable energy. Did these companies make changes solely out of the goodness of their hearts? The second tagma, the thorax , bears the wings and contains the flight muscles on the second segment, which is greatly enlarged; the first and third segments have been reduced to collar-like structures, and the third segment bears the halteres , which help to balance the insect during flight. The third tagma is the abdomen consisting of 11 segments, some of which may be fused, and with the 3 hindermost segments modified for reproduction.
An example of this is Spilomyia longicornis , which is a fly but mimics the common wasp. Flies have a mobile head with a pair of large compound eyes on the sides of the head, and in most species, three small ocelli on the top.