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Le Marsupilami, tome Houba Banana (French) Board book – October 14, . Board book; Publisher: Marsu productions; MARSU PRODUCTIONS edition.

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These patrons were twice as likely to order a meatless lunch compared with a control group 1 in 3 people versus 1 in 6. Changing a habit takes effort; when people do it, they signal the importance of change. Change also signals that more people will curb their meat eating in the future, and people conform to this anticipated norm as if it were a current reality. Finally, change signals that anyone can take climate action, and eating less meat is not just for vegetarians. As a rule of thumb, the more substantial the change you make, the more you signal the need for change.

Recycling matters, but it is common and easy. How many people does it take to start change? Just one. Psychologists study these situations using tasks that pit individual gains against collective good. In one task, anonymous players can contribute money to a collective fund, which gets doubled and redistributed, or they can keep their money and benefit from the contributions of their fellows.

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Share more and the group benefits; keep more and you benefit. In general, people contribute more when they see others do it too—even if only one other person starts the trend at first. Climate change scholar Steve Westlake found this exact pattern in a recent survey: Among respondents who knew one person who gave up flying for the environment, half flew less themselves.

Flying less does reduce emissions. Crucially, though, social norms provide a backdrop for policy change. When people forge an initial commitment to a cause, like buying less meat, they often proceed to political commitments, like contacting a senator. Rather than undermining political action, sustainable living prompts sustainable voting.

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A caveat: These benefits emerge when conservation requires some sacrifice. Easy, single-shot actions like buying efficient lightbulbs make us feel like we have done our part and can disengage. More challenging, ongoing actions like changing our diets propel us forward into action. Just as sacrifice convinces others that climate action is important, it convinces us of our own commitment; we start to see ourselves as climate advocates.

Eating less meat creates a gateway to workplace advocacy—like encouraging digital meetings or lobbying for solar panels—which opens a door to signing petitions or protesting. If people act on climate change in their daily lives, they will expect industry to do its part. They also pay attention to trends. Lyft recently announced it would offset carbon emissions from its rides.

Google, Apple, Sony, T-Mobile, and others have committed to buying renewable energy. Did these companies make changes solely out of the goodness of their hearts? The second tagma, the thorax , bears the wings and contains the flight muscles on the second segment, which is greatly enlarged; the first and third segments have been reduced to collar-like structures, and the third segment bears the halteres , which help to balance the insect during flight. The third tagma is the abdomen consisting of 11 segments, some of which may be fused, and with the 3 hindermost segments modified for reproduction.

An example of this is Spilomyia longicornis , which is a fly but mimics the common wasp. Flies have a mobile head with a pair of large compound eyes on the sides of the head, and in most species, three small ocelli on the top.

The compound eyes may be close together or widely separated, and in some instances are divided into a dorsal region and a ventral region, perhaps to assist in swarming behaviour. The antennae are well-developed but variable, being thread-like, feathery or comb-like in the different families.

The mouthparts are adapted for piercing and sucking, as in the black flies, mosquitoes and robber flies, and for lapping and sucking as in many other groups. The gut includes large diverticulae , allowing the insect to store small quantities of liquid after a meal. For visual course control, flies' optic flow field is analyzed by a set of motion-sensitive neurons. Like other insects, flies have chemoreceptors that detect smell and taste, and mechanoreceptors that respond to touch.

The third segments of the antennae and the maxillary palps bear the main olfactory receptors, while the gustatory receptors are in the labium, pharynx, feet, wing margins and female genitalia, [41] enabling flies to taste their food by walking on it. The taste receptors in females at the tip of the abdomen receive information on the suitability of a site for ovipositing. Diptera have one pair of fore wings on the mesothorax and a pair of halteres , or reduced hind wings, on the metathorax. A further adaptation for flight is the reduction in number of the neural ganglia , and concentration of nerve tissue in the thorax, a feature that is most extreme in the highly derived Muscomorpha infraorder.

The only other order of insects bearing a single pair of true, functional wings, in addition to any form of halteres, are the Strepsiptera. In contrast to the flies, the Strepsiptera bear their halteres on the mesothorax and their flight wings on the metathorax. The abdomen shows considerable variability among members of the order.

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It consists of eleven segments in primitive groups and ten segments in more derived groups, the tenth and eleventh segments having fused. Each segment is made up of a dorsal and a ventral sclerite , connected by an elastic membrane. In some females, the sclerites are rolled into a flexible, telescopic ovipositor. Flies are capable of great manoeuvrability during flight due to the presence of the halteres.

These act as gyroscopic organs and are rapidly oscillated in time with the wings; they act as a balance and guidance system by providing rapid feedback to the wing-steering muscles, and flies deprived of their halteres are unable to fly. The wings and halteres move in synchrony but the amplitude of each wing beat is independent, allowing the fly to turn sideways.

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Flies tend to fly in a straight line then make a rapid change in direction before continuing on a different straight path. They are initiated by visual stimuli as the fly observes an object, nerves then activate steering muscles in the thorax that cause a small change in wing stroke which generate sufficient torque to turn. Detecting this within four or five wingbeats, the halteres trigger a counter-turn and the fly heads off in a new direction.

Flies have rapid reflexes that aid their escape from predators but their sustained flight speeds are low. Dolichopodid flies in the genus Condylostylus respond in less than 5 milliseconds to camera flashes by taking flight. Langmuir suggested an estimated speed of 25 miles per hour. Males of fly species such as Cuterebra , many hover flies, [57] bee flies Bombyliidae [58] and fruit flies Tephritidae [59] maintain territories within which they engage in aerial pursuit to drive away intruding males and other species.

Many flies mate in flight while swarming. Diptera go through a complete metamorphosis with four distinct life stages — egg, larva, pupa and adult. In many flies, the larval stage is long and adults may have a short life. Most dipteran larvae develop in protected environments; many are aquatic and others are found in moist places such as carrion, fruit, vegetable matter, fungi and, in the case of parasitic species, inside their hosts. They tend to have thin cuticles and become desiccated if exposed to the air.

Apart from the Brachycera , most dipteran larvae have sclerotinised head capsules, which may be reduced to remnant mouth hooks; the Brachycera, however, have soft, gelatinized head capsules from which the sclerites are reduced or missing. Many of these larvae retract their heads into their thorax.


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Some other anatomical distinction exists between the larvae of the Nematocera and the Brachycera. Especially in the Brachycera, little demarcation is seen between the thorax and abdomen, though the demarcation may be visible in many Nematocera, such as mosquitoes; in the Brachycera, the head of the larva is not clearly distinguishable from the rest of the body, and few, if any, sclerites are present.

Informally, such brachyceran larvae are called maggots, [63] but the term is not technical and often applied indifferently to fly larvae or insect larvae in general. The eyes and antennae of brachyceran larvae are reduced or absent, and the abdomen also lacks appendages such as cerci.

This lack of features is an adaptation to food such as carrion, decaying detritus, or host tissues surrounding endoparasites. Dipteran larvae have no jointed, "true legs", [62] but some dipteran larvae, such as species of Simuliidae , Tabanidae and Vermileonidae , have prolegs adapted to hold onto a substrate in flowing water, host tissues or prey. These are found especially in groups that have larvae dependent on food sources that are short-lived or are accessible for brief periods. In Hylemya strigosa Anthomyiidae the larva moults to the second instar before hatching, and in Termitoxenia Phoridae females have incubation pouches, and a full developed third instar larva is deposited by the adult and it almost immediately pupates with no freely feeding larval stage.


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  5. The tsetse fly as well as other Glossinidae, Hippoboscidae, Nycteribidae and Streblidae exhibits adenotrophic viviparity ; a single fertilised egg is retained in the oviduct and the developing larva feeds on glandular secretions. When fully grown, the female finds a spot with soft soil and the larva works its way out of the oviduct, buries itself and pupates.

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    Some flies like Lundstroemia parthenogenetica Chironomidae reproduce by thelytokous parthenogenesis , and some gall midges have larvae that can produce eggs paedogenesis. The pupae take various forms. In some groups, particularly the Nematocera, the pupa is intermediate between the larval and adult form; these pupae are described as "obtect", having the future appendages visible as structures that adhere to the pupal body.

    The outer surface of the pupa may be leathery and bear spines, respiratory features or locomotory paddles. In other groups, described as "coarctate", the appendages are not visible.

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    In these, the outer surface is a puparium , formed from the last larval skin, and the actual pupa is concealed within. When the adult insect is ready to emerge from this tough, desiccation-resistant capsule, it inflates a balloon-like structure on its head, and forces its way out. The adult stage is usually short, its function only to mate and lay eggs. The genitalia of male flies are rotated to a varying degree from the position found in other insects.

    When flies mate, the male initially flies on top of the female, facing in the same direction, but then turns around to face in the opposite direction. This forces the male to lie on his back for his genitalia to remain engaged with those of the female, or the torsion of the male genitals allows the male to mate while remaining upright. This leads to flies having more reproduction abilities than most insects, and much quicker.

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    Flies occur in large populations due to their ability to mate effectively and quickly during the mating season. As ubiquitous insects, dipterans play an important role at various trophic levels both as consumers and as prey. In some groups the larvae complete their development without feeding, and in others the adults do not feed.